What is this letter from the Census Bureau that has nearly fifty questions?

The U.S. Census Bureau also conducts an annual American Community Survey. This survey has additional questions about nation of origin, citizenship, income, languages spoken, employment and one's residence. About 3.5 million people receive this lengthy survey every year.  It has been in use nationwide since 2005, and it takes the place of the Census "long form" that was sent to a sample of households (usually 1 in 6 households) between 1940 and 2000.  

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1. What is the Census?
2. How do I participate?
3. What questions will be asked?
4. Will my answers be shared with law enforcement or my landlord?
5. What is this letter from the Census Bureau that has nearly fifty questions?
6. What about phone calls, letters, or website popups that say they are from the Census Bureau but ask very personal questions?
7. Who is that guy outside who says he is from the Census Bureau?